Neue Inschriften aus Apollonia ad Rhyndacum

Hüseyin UZUNOĞLU   882–890

 

Abstract: In this contribution are presented five new inscriptions copied during a visit to the village of Gölyazı (Apollonia ad Rhyndacum) belonging to Nilüfer county of Bursa in 2011 under the supervision of Enver Sağır, the Director of the Bursa Archaeological Museum. Four of the inscriptions introduced here (nos. 2–5) are today in a small depot in the garden of the Conference Hall of the Municipality of Gölyazı, while one (no. 1a-b) is inside the municipal building itself. The verbal reports from the authorities related that these inscriptions were gathered from the ancient city and from its territory. However, unfortunately no precise data can be given concerning the exact find spots of these inscriptions. The first inscription dating from the end of 2nd century A.D. (to the years of 189-190) is carved on a tabula ansata, on the front side of a sarcophagus. Only six lines survive because the upper part of the chest is missing. The sarcophagus was turned down and re-used presumably as a basin of a fountain at a later time. On this side is another inscription carved and must apparently date to the Byzantine Period both from the lettering style employed and mentioning of a spatharios called Theodotos. In the second inscription carved on a limestone statue base, a priest of Zeus called Publius Marcius Firmianus erected a statue of Hera for his native land and Sabina and most probably to Hadrian himself, whose name and titles must have been carved on the broken part of the stone. Since it provides a date (τῷ θσʹ ἔτει) in lines 6 and 7 and, it is well known that the Sullan Era was used in the city of Apollonia, it can be dated at the first glance to the years of 124/125 A.D. Yet, in the article it is emphasized that this dating is problematic due to the fact that there are a few letter traces (ΥΜΠΙ ) on the missing part of inscription, which could lead us to complete that line necessarily as Ὀλ]υμπίῷ, one of the titles of the emperor. Since Hadrian accepted the title only after 129 A.D., it makes this dating impossible. Taking this into account, a new suggestion concerning the dating of the inscription is made in the article. The third inscription dated to the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Tiberius I (578–682 A.D.) or Tiberius II (A.D. 698–705) is the funerary stele of Theophilos (?) who dealt with some local building activities and died of a sickness. The other inscriptions are fragmentary and can be dated to end of the 3nd century A.D. (no. 5) and to the Byzantine Period (no. 4) from the style of lettering employed.

Keywords: Apollonia ad Rhyndacum; Gölyazı; Mysia; Hera; spatharios; Hadrianus; Era.

 

References

Abmeier 1990

A. Abmeier, Zur Geschichte von Apollonia am Rhyndakos, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 1–16.

Aybek 2007

S. Aybek, Apollonia ad Rhyndacum and the sanctuary of Apollon in Mysia, North­western Turkey, Trakya Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 9, 2, 2007, 105–119.

Aybek – Öz 2004

S. Aybek – A. K. Öz, Prelimary report of the archaeological survey at Apollonia ad Rhyndacum in Mysia, Anadolu 27, 2004, 1–25.

Aybek –Dreyer 2010

S. Aybek – B. Dreyer, Neues vom Proconsul Asiae Sempronius Senecioaus Apollonia ad Rhyndakos, ZPE 173, 2010,119–123.

Bilabel 1920

F. Bilabel, Die Ionische Kolonisation. Untersuchungen über die Gründungen der Ioner, deren staatliche und kultliche Organisation und Beziehungen zu den Mütterstädten, Leipzig 1920.

Boatwright 2003

M. T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the cities of the Roman Empire, Princeton 2003.

Bondoux 2003

R. Bondoux, Les Villes, in: B. Geyer – J. Lefort (Hrsgg.), La Bithynie au Moyen Âge, Paris 2003, 377–409 (Réalités Byzantines 9).

Bury 1911

J. B. Bury, The Imperial Administrative System in the Ninth Century with a revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos, London 1911.

Cohen 1995

G. M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the islands, and Asia Minor (Hellenistic Culture and Society 17), Berkeley 1995.

Dallaway 1797

J. Dallaway, Constantinople Ancient and Modern, with Excursions to the Shores and Islands of the Archipelago and to the Troad, London 1797.

Dieterich 1898

K. Dieterich, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, Leip­zig 1898.

Dräger 2000

M. Dräger, Überlegungen zu den Reisen Hadrians durch Kleinasien, Klio 82, 2000, 208–216.

Dürr 1881

I. Dürr, Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrians (Abhandlungen des archäologisch-epigraphischen Seminares der Universität Wien), Wien 1881.

Ehrhardt 1983

N. Ehrhardt, Milet und seine Kolonien. Vergleichende Untersuchung der kul­tischen und politischen Einrichtungen, Frankfurt a. M. 1983.

Gignac 1976

F. T. Gignac, A grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, vol. 1: Phonology, Mailand 1976.

Grégoire 1909

H. Grégoire, Rapport sur un voyage d’exploration dans le Pont et en Cappadoce, BCH 33, 1909, 3–169.

Hahn 1994

U. Hahn, Die Frauen des römischen Kaiserhauses und ihre Ehrungen im grie­chischen Osten anhand epigraphischer und numismatischer Zeugnisse von Livia bis Sabina, Saarbrücken 1994.

Haldon 1984

J. F. Haldon, Byzantine Praetorians: an administrative, institutional and social survey of the Opsikion and Tagmata, c. 580–900, Bonn 1984.

Halfmann 1986

H. Halfmann, Itinera principioum. Geschichte und Typologie der Kaiserreisen im Römischen Reich, Stuttgart 1986.

Hamilton 1842

W. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus and Armenia: with some account of their antiquities and geology I, London 1842.

Hasluck 1910

F. W. Hasluck, Cyzicus, being some account of the history and antiquities of that city, and of the district adjacent to it, with the towns of Apollonia ad Rhyn­dacum, Miletupolis, Hadrianutherae, Priapus, etc., Cambridge 1910.

Hirschfeld 1895

G. Hirschfeld, Apollonia (17), RE II/1, 1895, col. 115–116.

Jones 1998

A. H. M. Jones, Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, Oxford 1998 (Special Edition).

Kazhdan 1991

A. P. Kazhdan, Spatharius, in: A. P. Kazhdan et al. (Hrsg.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. IIII, New York - Oxford 1991, 1935–1936.

Lampe 1961

G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon, Oxford 1961.

Le Bas 1888

P. Le Bas, Voyage archéologique en Grèce et en Asie Mineure, Paris 1888.

Leschhorn 1993

W. Leschhorn, Antike Ären. Zeitrechnung, Politik und Geschichte im Schwarz­meerraum und in Kleinasien nördlich des Tauros, Stuttgart 1993.

LPGN VA

T. Corsten et al., A lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Volume VA. Coastal Asia Minor: Pontos to Ionia, Oxford 2010.

Magie 1950

D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor, to the end of the third century after Christ, vols. I–II, Princeton 1950.

Mango 1979

C. Mango, The Monastery of St. Constantine on Lake Apolyont, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 33, 1979, 329–333.

Merkelbach – Stauber 2001

R. Merkelbach – J. Stauber, Steinepigramme aus dem griechischen Osten II. Die Nordküste Kleinasiens (Marmarameer und Pontos), München-Leipzig 2001.

Oikonomidès 1972

N. Oikonomidès, Les listes de préséance byzantines des IX. Et X. siècles / intro­duction, texte, traduction et commentaire par Nicolas Oikonomidès, Paris 1972.

Ötüken 1996

Y. Ötüken, Forschungen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien. Antike und byzantinische Denkmäler in der Provinz Bursa, Tübingen 1996 (Istanbuler Mitteilungen Beiheft 41).

Radet 1892

G. Radet, De coloniis a Macedonibus in Asiam cis Taurum deductis, Paris 1892.

Rehm – Kawerau 1914

G. Kawerau – A. Rehm, Das Delphinion in Milet. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, Band 1.3, Berlin 1914.

Robert 1980

L. Robert, A travers l’Asie Mineure, Paris 1980.

Robert 1974

L. Robert, Opera Minora Selecta. Épigraphie et antiquités Grecques: Tome IV, Amsterdam 1974.

Robert 1990

L. Robert, Opera Minora Selecta. Épigraphie et antiquités Grecques: Tome VII, Amsterdam 1990.

San Nicolo 1929

M. San Nicolo, Spatharius, RE III A,2, 1929 col. 1549–1550.

Sayar 1998

M. H. Sayar, Perinthos-Herakleia (MarmaraEreğlisi) und Umgebung. Geschichte, Testimonien, griechische und lateinische Inschriften, Wien 1998.

Schorndorfer 1997

S. Schorndorfer, Öffentliche Bauten hadrianischer Zeit in Kleinasien. Archäologisch-historische Untersuchungen, Münster 1997.

Seibert 1963

J. Seibert, Metropolis und Apoikie: historische Beiträge zur Geschichte ihrer gegenseitigen Beziehungen, Würzburg 1963.

Sestini 1789

D. Sestini, Voyage dans la Grèce asiatique, a la péninsule de Cyzique, a Brus­se et a Nicée; avec des details sur l’histoire Naturelle de ces contrées, Paris 1789.

Stein 1925

E. Stein, Mitteilungen zur spätbyzantinischen Verfassungs- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Mitteilungen zur Osmanischen Geschichte 2, 1925, 1–62.

Syme 1988

R. Syme, Journeys of Hadrian, ZPE 73, 1988, 159–170.

Şahin 1978

S. Şahin, Bithynische Studien (Bithynia İncelemeleri), Bonn 1978.

Tscherikower 1927

V. Tscherikower, Städtegründungen von Alexander dem Großen bis auf die Römerzeit, Leipzig 1927 (Philologus Supplementband 19,1).

Tüner-Önen 2013

Nihal Tüner Önen, Hadrians Reisen im östlichen Mittelmeer anhand neuer Inschriften aus Phaselis, Adalya XVI, 2013, 93–106.

Yalman 1987

B. Yalman, Apollonia ad Rhyndacum: Gölyazı Köyü, İlgi 37, 1987, 7–12.

Weber 1907

W. Weber, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus, Leipzig 1907.

Wiegand 1904

T. Wiegand, Reisen in Mysien, AM 29, 1904, 254–339.

Wiegand 1911

T. Wiegand, Inschriften aus der Levante II, AM 36, 1911, 287–301.

Winter 1996

E. Winter, Staatliche Baupolitik und Baufürsorge in den römischen Provinzen des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien, Bonn 1996 (Asia Minor Studien 20).

Zacos – Vegley 1972a

G. Zacos – A. Veglery, Byzantine lead seals, vol. 1.1: Nos. 1–1095; Imperial seals: Vth to XVth centuries;non-imperial seals: VIth to IXth centuries, Basel 1972.

Zacos – Vegley 1972b

G. Zacos – A. Veglery, Byzantine lead seals, vol. 1.2: Nos. 1096–2671a; non-imperial seals :VIth to IXth centuries, Basel 1972.

Zacos – Vegley 1972c

G. Zacos – A. Veglery, Byzantine lead seals, vol. 1.3: Nos. 2672–3231, imperial and allied seals: Vth to XIVth centuries; non-imperial seals: VIth to IXth centuries, Basel 1972.

Zgusta 1964

L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen, Prag 1964 (Monografie ori-entálnihostavu Ceskoslovenská Akademie Ved 19).