Termessos’ta Yeni Keşfedilen “Pan Temenosu”

A. Vedat ÇELGİN Mehmet KÜRKÇÜ   238–258

 

Abstract: This paper deals with a cultic building recently discovered at a remote wooded place in the ancient city of Termessos (Solymos Lophos/Güllük Dağı). Aforementioned building is located 500 m south-southwest of the city centre as the crow flies, 30 m east of the southeast corner of a wide terrace in the southeast of E10 necropolis, and can be best described as a shed built of local lime­stone with an oblique plan. It is well-preserved except the north wall that was destroyed by looters. The four-line inscrip­tion on the bedrock inside the building below the west wall declares that the temenos was dedicated to Pan by a Hieron. Judging from the letter shapes, the inscription likely belongs to the Late Hellenistic period (1st century BC). Although most of the major gods and goddesses of the Greek pantheon have cults in Termessos, the cult of Pan, who is a god of mountains and wood­lands, has not been documented thus far, and our inscription is a significant discovery in this respect. It is not clear, however, whether the term “temenos” refers to the sanc­tuary or exclusively to the stone shed. While the cult of Pan, a god of Arcadian origin, spread rather rapidly in whole Hellas throughout the 5th century BC, in Anatolia, where mountainous geography and econo­mically important animal husbandry (i.e. shepherding) were prominent aspects like in Greece, the cult has been securely indentified only in six sites: Corycian Cave in Kilikia, Ephesos, Pergamon, Knidos, Apollonia and Lydai. Thus, identification of a Pan cult with an inscription and a still stan­ding building in Termessos offers a special case. The city, which yielded considerable information on diverse fields such as monumental urban planning in Per­ga­mane style, grave typology, burial cus­toms, agones, and Hellenisation and Romanisation, now stands out with its Pan sanctuary.

Keywords: Termessos; Pan; temenos; dedication; Hieron.

 

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