Termessos’ta Yeni Keşfedilen “Pan Temenosu”

A. Vedat ÇELGİN Mehmet KÜRKÇÜ   238–258 | Download


Abstract: This paper deals with a cultic building recently discovered at a remote wooded place in the ancient city of Termessos (Solymos Lophos/Güllük Dağı). Aforementioned building is located 500 m south-southwest of the city centre as the crow flies, 30 m east of the southeast corner of a wide terrace in the southeast of E10 necropolis, and can be best described as a shed built of local lime­stone with an oblique plan. It is well-preserved except the north wall that was destroyed by looters. The four-line inscrip­tion on the bedrock inside the building below the west wall declares that the temenos was dedicated to Pan by a Hieron. Judging from the letter shapes, the inscription likely belongs to the Late Hellenistic period (1st century BC). Although most of the major gods and goddesses of the Greek pantheon have cults in Termessos, the cult of Pan, who is a god of mountains and wood­lands, has not been documented thus far, and our inscription is a significant discovery in this respect. It is not clear, however, whether the term “temenos” refers to the sanc­tuary or exclusively to the stone shed. While the cult of Pan, a god of Arcadian origin, spread rather rapidly in whole Hellas throughout the 5th century BC, in Anatolia, where mountainous geography and econo­mically important animal husbandry (i.e. shepherding) were prominent aspects like in Greece, the cult has been securely indentified only in six sites: Corycian Cave in Kilikia, Ephesos, Pergamon, Knidos, Apollonia and Lydai. Thus, identification of a Pan cult with an inscription and a still stan­ding building in Termessos offers a special case. The city, which yielded considerable information on diverse fields such as monumental urban planning in Per­ga­mane style, grave typology, burial cus­toms, agones, and Hellenisation and Romanisation, now stands out with its Pan sanctuary.

Keywords: Termessos; Pan; temenos; dedication; Hieron.



Adams 2007

C. Adams, Travel and the Perception of Space in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, şurada: M. Rahtmann (ed.), Wahrnehmung und Erfassung geo­graphischer Räume in der Antike, Mainz am Rhein 2007, 211–220.

Amandry 1984

P. Amandry, Le culte de Pan et des Nymphs à l’Antre Corycien, BCH Suppl. 9: L’Antre Corycien II, 1984, 395–426.

Bailly 1950

A. Bailly, Dictionnaire Grec-Français, Edition revue par L. Séchan – P. Chan­traine, Paris 1950.

Boardman 1997

J. Boardman, Pan, LIMC VIII/1, 1997, 923–941.

Borgeaud 1988

Ph. Borgeaud, The Cult of Pan in Ancient Greece, (Fransızcadan çev. K. Atlass – J. Redfield), Chicago – Londra 1988.

Boyana 2005

H. Boyana, Arkadia Kökenli Keçi Tanrı Pan/Aus Arkadia Gestammter Bocks­gott Pan, Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi XXIV, 37, 2005, 165–193.

Brommer 1956

F. Brommer, Pan, RE Suppl. VIII, 1956, 949–1008.

Bunbury 2006

E. H. Bunbury, Achelous (Ἀχελῷος), şurada: W. Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography I, Londra – New York 2006, 18–19.

Burkert 1998

W. Burkert, Greek Religion, (Almancadan çev. J. Raffan), Cambridge (MA) 1998.

Çevik – İplikçioğlu 2003

N. Çevik – B. İplikçioğlu, Epigraphische Mitteilungen aus Antalya X: Neues zu den Felsostotheken in Trebenna, EA 35, 2003, 147–156.

Deacy 2010

S. Deacy, “Famous Athens, Divine Polis”: The Religious System at Athens, şura­da: D. Ogden (ed.), A Companion to Greek Religion, Malden (MA) - Oxford 2010, 221–235 (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World).

Dinç – Meyer 2004

R. Dinç – G. Meyer, Mélanges de cultures et de populations à Tralles d’ap­rès deux nouvelles inscriptions, Mediterraneo Antico 7,1, 2004, 287–315.

Erzen 1993

A. Erzen, 1992 Yılı Enez Kazısı, XV. KST II, Ankara 1993, 455–474.

Farnell 1977

L. R. Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States V, New Roschelle (NY) 1977.

Frei 1990

P. Frei, Die Götterkulte Lykiens in der Kaiserzeit, şurada: ANRW II. 18.3, Berlin - New York 1990, 1729–1864.

Günther 2006

W. Günther, Pan »im Hain des Phoibos« – Zu einem Inschriftenneufund aus Didyma, şurada: R. Biering et al. (edd.), Maiandros. Festschrift für Volk­mar von Graeve, Münih 2006, 105–110.

Heberdey 1923

R. Heberdey, Gymnische und andere Agone in Termessus Pisidiae, şurada: W. H. Buckler – W. M. Calder (edd.), Anatolian Studies, presented to Sir Willi­am Mitchell Ramsay, Londra – New York 1923, 195–206.

Heberdey 1929

R. Heberdey, Termessische Studien, Viyana - Leipzig 1929 (Akademie der Wis­­­sen­schaften in Wien. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Denkschriften 69, 3).

Heberdey 1934

R. Heberdey, Termessos, RE 5 A/1, 1934, 732–775.

Hellenkemper – Hild 2004

H. Hellenkemper – F. Hild, TIB 8: Lykien und Pamphylien 2, Viyana 2004 (Denkschriften ÖAW, phil.-hist. Klasse 320).

Herbig 1949

R. Herbig, Pan. Der griechische Bocksgott. Versuch einer Monographie, Frank­furt am Main 1949.

Hill 1897

G. F. Hill, BMC, Gr, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia, Londra 1897.

Holzhausen 2000

J. Holzhausen, Pan (Πάν), DNP 9, 2000, 221–223.

Hübinger 1992

U. Hübinger, On Pan’s Iconography and the Cult in the Sanctuary of Pan on the Slopes of Mount Lykaion, şurada: R. Hägg (ed.), The Iconography of Greek Cult in the Archaic and Classical Periods. Proceedings of the First Inter­national Seminar on Ancient Greek Cult, organized by the Swedish Institute at Athens and the European Cultural Centre of Delphi, 16–18 Novem­ber 1990, Delphi, Atina - Liège 1992, 189–212 (Centre d’Étude de la Religion Grecque Antique, Kernos Supplément 1).

Imhoof-Blumer 1883

Fr. Imhoof-Blumer, Monnaies grecques, Paris – Leipzig 1883.

İplikçioğlu 2004

B. İplikçioğlu, Batı Pamphylia ve Doğu Lykia’da Epigrafya Araştırmaları 2002, AST 21,1, 2003 (2004), 75–78.

İplikçioğlu 2006

B. İplikçioğlu, ΘΕΟΙ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΙ. Die Gerechten Götter” in zwei neuen In­schrif­ten aus Termessos, AAWW 141, 2006, 5–16 (Veröffentlichungen der Kleinasiatischen Kommission Nr. 20).

Jost 2010

M. Jost, The Religious System in Arcadia, şurada: D. Ogden (ed.), A Com­panion to Greek Religion, Malden (MA) - Oxford 2010, 264–279 (Black­well Companions to the Ancient World).

Karayaka 2007

N. Karayaka, Hellenistik ve Roma Döneminde Pisidia Tanrıları, İstanbul 2007.

Kürkçü 2011

M. Kürkçü, Termessos’taki Su Yapıları Araştırması 2010/Research on the Hydrau­­lic Developments of Termessos in 2010, ANMED 9, 2011, 244–251.

Kürkçü 2012

M. Kürkçü, Termessos’taki Su Yapıları Araştırmaları 2011/Surveys on the Water Structures at Termessos in 2011, ANMED 10, 2012, 209–214.

Lanckoroński et al. 1892

K. Lanckoroński – G. Niemann – E. Petersen, Städte Pamphyliens und Pisi­diens II: Pisidien, Prag – Viyana – Leipzig 1892.

Larson 1995

J. Larson, The Corycian Nymphs and the Bee Maidens of the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, GRBS 36, 1995, 341–357.

Larson 2007

J. Larson, Ancient Greek Cults. A guide, New York – Abingdon 2007.

Latte 1934

K. Latte, Τέμενος, RE 2. Seri, 5, 1934, 435–437.

Lupu 2005

E. Lupu, Greek Sacred Law. A Collection of New Documents (NGSL), Leiden - Boston 2005 (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 152).

Malkin 1987

I. Malkin, Religion and Colonization in Ancient Greece, Leiden 1987 (Studies in Greek and Roman Religion 3).

Mendel 1912

G. Mendel, Catalogue des sculptures grecques, romaines et byzantines I, İstanbul 1912 (Musées Impériaux Ottomans).

Naumann 1983

F. Naumann, Die Ikonographie der Kybele in der phrygischen und der grie­chischen Kunst, Tübingen 1983.

Nilsson 1986

M. P. Nilsson, Cults, Myths, Oracles, and Politics in Ancient Greece, Göte­borg 1986.

Ohlemutz 1940

E. Ohlemutz, Die Kulte und Heiligtümer der Götter in Pergamon, Würz­burg - Aumühle 1940.

Pape – Benseler 1884

W. Pape – G. E. Benseler, Wörterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen I–II, Braunschweig 18843.

Pasquier 1977

A. Pasquier, Pan et les Nymphs à l’Antre Corycien, BCH Suppl. 4: Études Delphiques, 1977, 365–387.

Passow 1993

F. Passow, Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache, Darmstadt 1993.

Perdrizet 1904

P. Perdrizet, RA I, 1904, 234–244.

Pötscher 1979

W. Pötscher, Pan (Πάν), KlP 4, 1979, 444–447.

Ramsay 1895

W. M. Ramsay, The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Being and Essay of the Local History of Phrygia from the Earliest Times to the Turkish Con­quest I, I: The Lycos Valley and South-Western Phrygia, Oxford 1895.

Robert 1935

L. Robert, Notes d’épigraphie hellénistique, BCH 59, 1935, 421–437.

Robert 1962

L. Robert, Villes d’Asie Mineure. Études de Géographie ancienne, Paris 19622.

Robert 1963

L. Robert, Noms indigènes dans l’Asie-Mineure gréco-romaine 1, Paris 1963.

Robert 2008

J. Robert, Pan (Πάν, lat. Pan), DNP Suppl. 5, 2008, 539–544.

Roscher 1897–1909

W. H. Roscher, Pan, Roscher III/1, Leipzig 1897–1909, 1347–1406.

Sayce 1914

A. H. Sayce, CR 28, 6, 1914, 196–197.

Schmitz 2007a

L. Schmitz, Achelous (Ἀχελῷος), şurada: W. Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology I, Londra - New York 2007, 8–9.

Schmitz 2007b

L. Schmitz, Pan (Πάν), şurada: W. Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology III, Londra – New York 2007, 106–107.

Sichtermann 1963

H. Sichtermann, Pan (Πάν), EAA 5, 1963, 920–922.

Simon 1983

E. Simon, Festivals of Attica. An Archaeological Commentary, Madison (WI) 1983.

Sinn 2005

U. Sinn, Spelaion, şurada: Thesaurus Cultus et Rituum Antiquorum IV, Los Angeles (CA) 2005, 75–78.

Smith – Ramsay 1887

A. H. Smith – W. M. Ramsay, Notes on a Tour in Asia Minor, JHS 8, 1887, 216–267.

Soykal Alanyalı 2011

F. Soykal Alanyalı, Ana Tanrıça Kültünde Çobanlar ve Çoban Tanrılar, şu­ra­da: E. Gürsoy Naskali (ed.), Çoban Kitabı, İstanbul 2011, 145–158.

Sterrett 1888a

J. R. S. Sterrett, An Epigraphical Journey in Asia Minor during the summer of 1884, Boston 1888 (Papers of The American School of Classical Studies at Athens II, 1883–1884).

Sterrett 1888b

J. R. S. Sterrett, The Wolfe Expedition to Asia Minor, Boston 1888 (Papers of The American School of Classical Studies at Athens III, 1884–1885).

Sundwall 1950

J. Sundwall, Kleinasiatische Nachträge, Helsinki 1950 (Studia orientalia edi­dit Societas orientalis Fennica XVI: 1).

Şahin 2014

S. Şahin, Stadiasmus Patarensis. Itinera Romana Provinciae Lyciae/Likya Eya­leti Roma Yolları, İstanbul 2014 (Gephyra Monografi Dizisi).

Tuchelt 1970

Kl. Tuchelt, Pan und Pankult in Kleinasien, MDAI (Ist) 19/20, 1969/1970, 223–236, Lev. 42–44.

Tuchelt 1999–2000

Kl. Tuchelt, Pan ve Anadolu’da Pan Kültü, (Almancadan çev. H. Boyana), Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 31, 1999–2000, 147–166.

Ustinova 2009

Y. Ustinova, Caves and the Ancient Greek Mind. Descending Underground in the Search for Ultimate Truth, Oxford 2009.

Wernicke 1897–1909

K. Wernicke, Pan, Roscher III/1, Leipzig 1897–1909, 1406–1481.

Zgusta 1964

L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen, Prag 1964.

Zimmermann 2002

Kl. Zimmermann, Temenos, DNP 12/1, 2002, 105–106.