«Es leben die Soldaten, der Bauer gibt den Braten, der Winzer gibt den Most, das ist Sol­­daten­kost…». Die «Zehntausend» des Xenophon und die Logistik der Söldner­armee im Gebirge

Oliver STOLL   120–144


Abstract: In his Anabasis (written around 380 B.C.) Xenophon of Athens describes a Greek Army of at least 13.000 mercenaries, the so called ‘Ten Thousand’ or ‘Cyreans’, on their march back from Cunaxa in Babylonia to the sea on the Euxine coast. How could such a large army (and its followers and train) be fed throughout the route, especially in winter 401/400 from their entry into Carduchia, then continuing into western and northern Armenia and traversing central Anatolia as far as the Pontic coastal mountains? How was the army supplied, and what role did the officers play in provisioning the Ten Thousand? Was there any administration and organization of logistics? What role did villages and village clusters play in the mountains? Is Xenophon to be trusted when he finally, in Trapezunt, does not even mention hunger and thirst as a reason for human losses on the march? Certainly not: Book IV of the Anabasis definitely includes episodes of suffering from hunger as a reason for illness and death.

Keywords: Xenophon; Anabasis; logistics/provisioning; march route; hostile landscape; villages/village cluster; markets; officers; administration; syskenia.



Álvarez Rico 2002

M. G. Álvarez Rico, The Greek Military Camp in the Ten Thousand’s Army, Gladius 22, 2002, 29–56.

Boeldieu-Trevet 2007

J. Boeldieu-Trevet, Commander dans le monde grec au Ve siècle avant notre ère, Franche-Comté 2007.

Bonner 1910

R. J. Bonner, The Name «Ten Thousand», Classical Philology 5, 1910, 97–99.

Breitenbach 1966

H. R. Breitenbach, Xenophon von Athen, Sonderdruck aus RE IX A 2, Stuttgart 1966.

Brennan 2012

Sh. Brennan, Mind the Gap: A «Snow Lacuna» in Xenophon’s Anabasis?, in: F. Hobden – Chr. Tuplin (Hgg.), Xenophon: Ethical Principles and Historical Enquiry, Leiden – Boston 2012, 307–339.

Buxton 2016

R.F. Buxton (Hg.), Aspects of Leadership in Xenophon, Newcastle upon Tyne 2016.

Campbell – Tritle 2013

B. Campbell – L.A. Tritle (Hgg.): Warfare in the Classical World, Oxford 2013.

Carroll 2005

M. Carroll, The Preparation and Consumption of Food as a Contributing Factor towards Communal Identity in the Roman Army, in: Z. Visy (Hg.), Limes XIX. Proceedings of the XIXth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Pécs, Hungary, September 2003, Pécs 2005, 363–372.

Dalby 1992

A. Dalby, Greeks abroad: Social Organisation and Food among the Ten Thousand, Journ. Hell. Stud. 112, 1992, 16–30.

Dillery 1995

J. Dillery, Xenophon and the History of his Times, London – New York 1995.

Drögemüller 1987

H.-P. Drögemüller, Der kurdisch-armenische Raum. Eine Einführung, Gymnasium 94/1, 1987, 385–420.

Engels 1978

D.W. Engels, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, Berkeley – Los Angeles 1978.

Epplett 2003

Chr. Epplett, Winter Warfare in Antiquity: Image and Reality, Mouseion Ser. III 3, 2003, 269–283.

Flower 2012

M. A. Flower, Xenophon’s Anabasis or The Expedition of Cyrus, Oxford 2012.

Flower 2017

M. A. Flower (Hg.): Xenophon. The Cambridge Companion to Xenophon, Cambridge 2017.

Fornis – Casillas 1997

C. Fornis – J.-M. Casillas, An Appreciation of the Social Function of the Spartan Syssitia, Ancient History Bulletin 11, 1997, 37–46.

Gabrielli 1996

M. Gabrielli, Transport et logistique militaire dans l’Anabase, in: E. Briant (Hg.), Dans le Pas des Dix Milles, Toulouse 1996, 109–122.

Gray 2011

V. Gray, Xenophon’s Mirror of Princes. Reading the Reflections, Oxford 2011.

Hamel 1998

D. Hamel, Athenian Generals. Military Authority in the Classical Period, Leiden 1998.

Hammond 1983

N. G. L. Hammond, Army Transport in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 24, 1983, 27–31.

Hanson 1998

V. D. Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. 2nd and revised Edition, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London 1998.

Harthen 2001

D. Harthen, The Logistics of Ancient Greek Land Warfare, PhD Diss. University of Liverpool 2001.

Holt 1993

F. Holt, Imperium Macedonicum and the East: The problem of Logistics, Ancient Macedonia 5, 1993, 582–593.

Holt 2005

F. Holt, Into the Land of Bones. Alexander the Great in Afghanistan, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London 2005.

Humble 2004

N. Humble, Reality and Ideology in the Representation of Women and War in Xenophon, The Ancient World 35,2, 2004, 166–183.

Hutchinson 2000

G. Hutchinson, Xenophon and the Art of Command, London 2000.

Kehne 1999

P. Kehne, Logistik, in: H. Sonnabend (Hg.), Mensch und Landschaft in der Antike. Lexikon der Historischen Geographie, Stuttgart – Weimar 1999, 308–315.

Kissel 1995

Th. Kissel, Untersuchungen zur Logistik des römischen Heeres in den Provinzen des griechischen Ostens, St. Katharinen 1995.

Lane Fox 2004

R. Lane Fox (Hg.), The Long March. Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, New Haven – London 2004.

Lazenby 1994

J. Lazenby, Logistics in Classical Greek Warfare, War in History 1, 1994, 3–18.

Le Bohec 2015

Y. Le Bohec (Hg.), The Encyclopedia of the Roman Army. Volume II, Oxford 2015.

Lee 2004

J. W. I. Lee, For there were many hetairai in the army: Women in Xenophon’s Anabasis, The Ancient Worl 35/2, 2004, 145–165.

Lee 2007

J. W. I. Lee, A Greek Army on the March. Soldiers and Survival in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Cambridge 2007.

Lee 2017

J. W. I. Lee, Xenophon and his Times, in: M. A. Flower 2017, 15–36.

Lee 2015

G. Lee – H. Whittaker – G. Wrightson (Hgg.), Ancient Warfare. Introducing Current Research, Volume I, Newcastle upon Tyne 2015.

Lendle 1984

O. Lendle, Der Marsch der «Zehntausend» durch das Land der Karduchen (Xenophon, Anabasis IV 1.5–3.34), Gymnasium 91, 1984, 202–236.

Lendle 1995

O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis (Bücher 1–7), Darmstadt 1995.

Lengauer 1979

W. Lengauer, Greek Commanders in the 5th and 4th Centuries: Politics and Ideology. A Study of Militarism, Warschau 1979.

Mayor 2014

A. Mayor, Animals in Warfare, in: G.L. Campbell (Hg.), Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life, Oxford 2014, 282–293.

Mueller-Goldingen 2009

Chr. Mueller-Goldingen, Zur Geschichte und Systematik des Begriffs «Logistik», Wiss. Zeitschr. der Techn. Univ. Dresden 58,1–2, 2009, 17–19.

Nickel 2016

R. Nickel, Xenophon. Leben und Werk, Marburg 2016.

Nussbaum 1959

G. B. Nussbaum, The Captains in the Army of the Ten Thousand. A Study in Political Organisation, Classica et Mediaevalia 20, 1959, 16–29.

Nussbaum 1967

G.B. Nussbaum, The Ten Thousand: A Study of Social Organisation and Action in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Leiden 1967.

O’Connor 2011

J. St. O’Connor, Armies, Navies and Economies in the Greek World in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E., PhD Diss. Columbia University 2011.

O’Connor 2015a

J. St. O’Connor, The Problem of the Four Hundred Wagons: The Provisioning of the Ten Thousand on the March to Cunaxa, in: G. Lee – H. Whittaker – G. Wrightson (Hgg.), Ancient Warfare. Introducing Current Research, Volume I, Newcastle upon Tyne 2015, 124–146.

O’Connor 2015b

J. St. O’Connor, Private Traders and the Food Supply of Classical Armies, Journal of Ancient History 3/2, 2015, 173–219.

O’Connor 2016

J. St. O’Connor, Logistics, in: I. Spence – D. Kelly – P. Londey (Hgg.), Conflict in Ancient Greece and Rome. Volume One, Greek Section, Santa Barbara 2016, 338–342.

Perjes 1970

G. Perjes, Army Provisioning, Logistics and Strategy in the Second Half of the 17th Century, Acta Historica Scientiarum Hungaricae 16, 1970, 1–52.

Perlman 1976/77

S. Perlman, The Ten Thousand. A Chapter of the Military, Social and Economic History of the Fourth Century, Rivista storica dell’Antichità 6–7, 1976/77, 241–284.

Rebenich 1998

St. Rebenich, Xenophon. Die Verfassung der Spartaner. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und erläutert von Stefan Rebenich, Darmstadt 1998.

Rood 2012

T. Rood, Xenophon, in: I.J.F. de Jong (Hg.), Space in Ancient Greek Literature. Studies in Ancient Greek Narrative. Mnemosyne Suppl. 339, Leiden – Boston 2012, 161–178.

Sabin 2007

Ph. Sabin, Lost Battles. Reconstructing the Great Clashes of the Ancient World, London 2007.

Schrader 2002

C. Schrader – J. Vela – V. Ramón, V.: Xenophontis operum Concordantiae. Volumen Secundum. Anabasis, Pars 1 und 2, Hildesheim 2002.

Spence 2002

I. G. Spence, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Warfare, Lanham/ Maryland – London 2002.

Sternberg 1999

R. H. Sternberg, The Transport of Sick and Wounded Soldiers in Classical Greece, Phoenix 53, 1999, 191–205.

Stoll 2002

O. Stoll, Gemeinschaft in der Fremde. Xenophons Anabasis als Quelle für das spätklassische Söldnerwesen?, Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 5, 2002, 123–183.

Stoll 2008

O. Stoll, «Incedere inter milites, habere ad manum centuriones ... iam et exercitus regerent!» Frauen und römisches Militär – eine schwierige Beziehung?, in: U. Brandl (Hg.), Frauen und Römisches Militär. Beiträge eines Runden Tisches in Xanten vom 7. bis 9. Juli 2005. British Archaeological Reports S 1759, Oxford 2008, 20–51.

Stoll 2010

O. Stoll, Zum Ruhme Athens: Wissen zum Wohl der Polis, Berlin 2010.

Stoll 2013

O. Stoll, Terror im Gebirge: Xenophon und die Anforderungen transkultureller Kriegführung. Der Rückzug des griechischen Söldnerkontingentes in Xenophons Anabasis und die Schilderung von Flussübergängen, Pässen und Bergbewohnern, Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 16, 2013, 277–345 (=http://gfa.gbv.de/dr,gfa,016,2013,a,10.pdf).

Stoll 2015a

O. Stoll, Xenophons Marsch durchs Gebirge. Ein Beispiel asymmetrischer Kriegführung aus der Antike, in: M. Kasper – M. Korenjak – R. Rollinger (Hgg.), Alltag – Albtraum – Abenteuer. Gebirgsüberschreitungen und Gipfelsturm in der Geschichte, Wien – Köln – Weimar 2015, 48–63.

Stoll 2015b

O. Stoll, Aus Wissen wird Können: «Amplius prodest locus saepe quam virtus» (Veg. mil. III 26,11). Landschaft in der militärwissenschaftlichen Fachliteratur der Antike, Marburger Beitr. zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 33, 2015, 87–130.

Stronk 1995

J. P. Stronk, The Ten Thousand in Thrace. An archaeological and historical commentary on Xenophon’s Anabasis, Books VI.iii–vi–VII, Amsterdam 1995.

Tänzer 1912

K. Tänzer, Das Verpflegungswesen der griechischen Heere bis auf Alexander d. Gr., Jena 1912.

Trundle 1999

M. Trundle, Identity and Community among Greek Mercenaries in the Classical World: 700–322 BCE., Ancient Hist. Bull. 13/1, 1999, 28–38 [wiederabgedruckt in: E.L. Wheeler (Hg.), The Armies of Classical Greece, Aldershot 2007, 481–491]

Trundle 2004

M. Trundle, Greek Mercenaries. From the Late Archaic Period to Alexander, London – New York 2004.

Trundle 2017

M. Trundle, The Anabasis and the Ten Thousand, 401–399 BC, in: M. Whitby – H. Sidebottom (Hgg.), The Encyclopedia of Ancient Battles. Volume 1, Oxford 2017, 408–416.

Tuplin 1999

Chr. Tuplin, On the Track of the Ten Thousand, Revue des Études Anciennes 101, 1999, 331–366.

Tuplin 2004

Chr. Tuplin (Hg.): Xenophon and his World. Papers from a conference held in Liverpool in July 1999, Stuttgart 2004.

van Creveld 1978

M. van Creveld, Supplying an Army: An Historical View, Royal United Services Institute, Journal of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies 123/2, June 1978, 1978, 56–63.

Waterfield 2006

R. Waterfield, Xenophon’s Retreat. Greece, Persia and the End of the Golden Age, Cambridge, Mass. 2006.

Wheeler 2007

WhE. Wheeler (Hg.), The Armies of Classical Greece, Aldershot 2007.

Whitby 2004

WhL. M. Whitby, Xenophon’s Ten Thousand as a Figthing Force, in: Lane Fox 2004, 215–242.

Wood 1964

N. Wood, Xenophon’s theory of leadership, Classica et Mediaevalia 25, 1964, 33–66 [wiederabgedruckt in: E.L. Wheeler (Hg.), The Armies of Classical Greece, Aldershot 2007, 447–480].