Inscriptions from Eastern Phrygia and Galatia

Peter THONEMANN 138–164

Doi: 10.36991/PHILIA.202112

How to cite 

Abstract: The author publishes sixty-one epitaphs, all dating to the Roman and late Roman periods, from eastern Phrygia and southern Galatia. These inscriptions were recorded by Sir William Calder in July 1908 in the course of an extensive epigraphic journey through the steppe north of Konya, and are published here on the basis of Calder’s notebook copies. The texts published here include a large number of indigenous personal names, as well as some interesting kinship terms, curse formulae, and decorative features. The monuments include two verse epitaphs, as well as a significant number of Christian texts.

Keywords: Phrygia, Galatia, epigraphy, epitaphs, verse inscriptions, Christianity.



Anderson 1899 J. G. C. Anderson, Explorations in Galatia cis Halym, JHS 19, 1899, 34–134, 280–318.
Ballance et al. 1961 M. H. Ballance et al., William Moir Calder, Anatolian Studies 11, 1961, 29–37. 
BE Bulletin épigraphique, annually in REG.
Belke 1984 K. Belke, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 4: Galatien und Lykaonien, Vienna 1984.
Breytenbach and Zimmermann 2018 C. Breytenbach – C. Zimmermann, Early Christianity in Lykaonia and Adjacent Areas: From Paul to Amphilochius of Iconium, Leiden and Boston 2018.
Brixhe 1987 C. Brixhe, Essai sur le grec anatolien au début de notre ère, nouvelle edition, Nancy 1987.
Brixhe 2004 C. Brixhe, Corpus des inscriptions paléo-phrygiennes. Supplément II, Kadmos 43, 2004, 1–130.
Brixhe 2013 C. Brixhe, The personal onomastics of Roman Phrygia, in Roman Phrygia: Culture and Society, ed. P. Thonemann, Cambridge 2013, 55–69.
Calder 1908 W. M. Calder, The eastern boundary of the province Asia, CR 22, 1908, 213–215.
Calder 1910 W. M. Calder, A journey round the Proseilemmene, KLIO 10, 1910, 232–242.
Calder 1911a W. M. Calder, Corpus inscriptionum neo-Phrygiarum, JHS 31, 1911, 161–215.
Calder 1911b W. M. Calder, The pronunciation of unmetrical Greek verse, CR 25, 1911, 139–140.
Calder 1912 W. M. Calder, Inscriptions d’Iconium, RevPhil 36, 1912, 48–77.
Calder 1922 W. M. Calder, Inscriptions grecques métriques inédites d’Asie Mineure, RevPhil 46, 1922, 114–131.
Calder 1926 W. M. Calder, Corpus inscriptionum neo-Phrygiarum III, JHS 46, 1926, 22–28.
Chaniotis 2016 A. Chaniotis, The age of a parthenos: a new epitaph from Aphrodisias, in Vir Doctus Anatolicus: Studies in Memory of Sencer Şahin, eds. B. Takmer – E. N. Akdoğu Arca – N. Gökalp Özdil, Istanbul 2016, 200–205.
Corsten 2010 T. Corsten, Names in –ιανός in Asia Minor, in Onomatalogos: Studies in Greek Personal Names Presented to Elaine Matthews, eds. R. W. V. Catling – F. Marchand, Oxford 2010, 456–463.
I.Ankara I S. Mitchell – D. French, The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Ankara (Ancyra), Vol. I: From Augustus to the End of the Third Century AD, Munich 2012.
I.Ankara II S. Mitchell – D. French, The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Ankara (Ancyra), Vol. II: Late Roman, Byzantine and other texts, Munich 2019.
ICG Inscriptiones Christianae Graecae,
I.Ephesos H. Wankel, R. Merkelbach et al., Die Inschriften von Ephesos (7 vols, IGSK 11–17), Bonn 1979–1981.  
I.Klaudiu Polis F. Becker-Bertau, Die Inschriften von Klaudiu Polis (IGSK 31), Bonn 1986.
I.Konya B. H. McLean, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor IV: Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Konya Archaeological Museum, Ankara 2002.
I.Prusa ad Olympum T. Corsten, Die Inschriften von Prusa ad Olympum (IGSK 39–40), Bonn 1991–1993.
I.Stratonikeia M. Ç. Şahin, Die Inschriften von Stratonikeia (2 vols in 3, IGSK 21–22), Bonn 1981–1990.
I.Sultan Dağı L. Jonnes, The Inscriptions of the Sultan Dağı I (IGSK 62), Bonn 2002.
LGPN Lexicon of Greek Personal Names.
MAMA Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua I–XI, Manchester and London 1928–2013.
Mitchell 1993 S. Mitchell, Anatolia. Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor (2 vols), Oxford 1993.
Ramsay 1906 W. M. Ramsay, The Tekmoreian guest-friends, in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire, ed. W. M. Ramsay, Aberdeen 1906, 305–377.
RECAM II S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor II: The Ankara District: The Inscriptions of North Galatia. Oxford 1982.
Robert, Hellenica L. Robert, Hellenica. Recueil d’épigraphie, de numismatique et d’antiquités grecques (13 vols), Paris 1940–1965.
Robert, OMS L. Robert, Opera Minora Selecta.  Epigraphie et antiquités grecques (7 vols), Amsterdam 1969–1990.
Robert and Robert 1954 L. Robert – J. Robert, La Carie, Tome II: Le plateau de Tabai et ses environs, Paris 1954.
Robert and Robert 1989 J. Robert – L. Robert, Claros I: Décrets hellénistiques, Paris 1989.
Roueché 2013 C. Roueché, The history of an idea: tracing the origins of the MAMA project, in Roman Phrygia: Culture and Society, ed. P. Thonemann, Cambridge 2013, 249–264.
SEG Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. 
SGO III R. Merkelbach – J. Stauber, Steinepigramme aus dem griechischen Osten, Band 3. Der «ferne Osten» und das Landesinnere bis zum Tauros, Munich and Leipzig 2001.
SGO IV R. Merkelbach – J. Stauber, Steinepigramme aus dem griechischen Osten, Band 4. Die Südküste Kleinasiens, Syrien und Palaestina, Munich and Leipzig 2002.
Strubbe 1997 J. H. M. Strubbe, ΑΡΑΙ ΕΠΙΤΥΜΒΙΟΙ. Imprecations against Desecrators of the Grave in the Greek Epitaphs of Asia Minor. A Catalogue (IGSK 52). Bonn 1997.
Summers 1992 G. D. Summers, An aerial survey of Çevre Kale, Yaraşlı, Anatolian Studies 42, 1992, 179–206.
TAM Tituli Asiae Minoris
Thonemann 2008 P. Thonemann, Cistophoric geography: Toriaion and Kormasa, NC 168, 2008, 43–60.
Thonemann 2013 P. Thonemann, Phrygia: an anarchist history, 950 BC–AD 100, in Roman Phrygia: Culture and Society, ed. P. Thonemann, Cambridge 2013, 1–40.
Thonemann 2014 P. Thonemann, Poets of the Axylon, Chiron 44, 2014, 191–232.
Thonemann 2015 P. Thonemann, The martyrdom of Ariadne of Prymnessos and an inscription from Perge, Chiron 45, 2015, 151–170.
Thonemann 2020 P. Thonemann, An epigraphic doublet: I.Smyrna 388 = MAMA I 37, ZPE 216, 2020, 82–84.
Waelkens 1986 M. Waelkens, Die kleinasiatischen Türsteine: Typologische und epigraphische Untersuchungen der kleinasiatischen Grabreliefs mit Scheintür, Mainz am Rhein 1986.
Zgusta 1964 L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen, Prague 1964.