New Epigraphic Documents from Northeast Phrygia

Hale GÜNEY   55–66

How to cite 


Abstract: This paper presents the initial results of an epigraphic survey carried out in 2015 in northeast Phrygia, today encompassing Mihalıççık County located between the Sakarya (Sangarios) river to the north and the Porsuk (Tembris) river to the south. The paper focuses on nine new inscriptions attested as spolia in Çalçı, Çardak, Dinek, İkizafer, Kızılbörüklü, Kozlu, Otluk and Yalımkaya villages and their vicinities, all located in Mihalıççık County in Eskişehir province today. All of these inscriptions contain information relating to the inhabitants as well as land-ownership in the region of northeast Phrygia. The paper begins by laying out the historical geography of the survey area, and then it presents a catalogue of the inscriptions with commentaries.

Keywords: Mihalıççık; Choria Considiana; imperial estate; funerary inscriptions; imperial freedmen; veterans.



Anderson 1899

J. G. C. Anderson, Exploration in Galatia cis Halym, JHS 19, 1899, 52–134.

Belke 1984

K. Belke, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 4: Galatien und Lykaonien, Vienna 1984.

Breytenbach – Zimmermann 2017

C. Breytenbach – C. Zimmermann, Early Christianity in Lycaonia and Ad-jacent Areas. From Paul to Amphilochius of Iconium, Leiden 2017.


T. Rizakes – G. Touratsoglou (eds.), Epigraphes Anō Makedonias (Elimeia, Eordaia, Notia Lynkēstis, Orestis). Tomos A', Katalogos epigraphōn, Athens 1985.

Eck – Pangerl 2005

W. Eck – A. Pangerl, Traians Heer im Partherkrieg. Zu einem neuen Diplom aus dem Jahre 115, Chiron 35, 2005, 49–67.

Gignac 1976

Th. Gignac, A Grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods I, Milan 1976.

Güney 2016

H. Güney, New Inscriptions from the Choria Considiana I: Çalçak Roman Necropolis, Anatolian Studies 66, 2016, 125–139.

Güney 2018

H. Güney, New Inscriptions from Northeast Phrygia: The Cult of Hosios and Dikaios, Gephyra 15, 101–117.

Güney (forthcoming)

H. Güney, New Inscriptions from Northeast Phrygia, Epigraphica Anatolica [2018].

IK Klaudiupolis

F. Becker-Bertau (ed.), Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien 31: Die Inschriften von Klaudiu Polis, Bonn 1986.

IK Pessinous

J. Strubbe (ed.), Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien 66: The Inscriptions of Pessinous, Bonn 2005.


J.-S. Balzat – R. W. V. Catling – É. Chiricat – T. Corsten (eds.), A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, Inland Asia Minor, volume V.C, Oxford 2018.


C. W. M. Cox – A. Cameron (eds.), Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua V: Monuments from Dorylaeum and Nacolea, Manchester 1937.


W. H. Buckler – W. M. Calder (eds.), Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua VI: Monuments and Documents from Phrygia and Caria, Manchester 1939.


W. M. Calder (ed.), Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua VII: Monuments from Eastern Phrygia, Manchester 1956.


W. M. Calder – J. Maxwell Ross Cormack (eds.), Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua VIII: Monuments from Lycaonia, the Pisido-Phrygian Borderland, Aphrodisias, Manchester 1962.

Mason 1974

H. J. Mason, Greek terms for Roman institutions: a lexicon and analysis,  Toronto 1974.

Masséglia 2013

J. Masséglia, Phrygians in relief: trends in self-representation, in: P. Thonemann (ed.), Roman Phrygia: Culture and Society, Oxford 2013, 95–123.

Mitchell 1974

S. Mitchell, The Plancii in Asia Minor, JRS 64, 1974, 27–39.

Niewöhner et al. 2013

P. Niewöhner – G. Dikilitaş – E. Erkul et al., Bronze Age höyüks, Iron Age hilltop forts, Roman poleis and Byzantine pilgrimage in Germia and its vicinity. ‘Connectivity’ and a lack of ‘definite places’ on the central Ana­tolian high plateau, Anatolian Studies 63, 2013, 97–136.


S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor, Vol. II: The Inscriptions of North Galatia. The Ankara District (British Institute at An­ka­ra Monograph Series), Oxford 1982.


R. Fink, Roman Military Records on Papyrus, Cleveland/Ohio 1971.

Sironen 2018

E. Sironen, Early Christian Inscriptions from the Corinthia and the Pelo-ponnese, in: C. Breytenbach – J. Ogereau (eds.), Authority and Identity in Emerging Christianities in Asia Minor and Greece, Leiden – Boston 2018, 201–216.

Sivas – Sivas 2004

T. Sivas – H. Sivas, Eskişehir, Kütahya, Afyonkarahisar İlleri Arkeolojik Envanteri 2003, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Kültür Envanteri Dergisi 2, 2004, 101–119.

Spaul 2000


J. Spaul, Cohors 2: the evidence for and a short history of the auxiliary infantry units of the Imperial Roman army, Oxford 2000.

Speidel 2009


M. A. Speidel, The Development of the Roman Forces in Northeastern Anatolia. New evidence for the history of the exercitus Cappadocicus, in: Heer und Herrschaft im Römischen Reich der Hohen Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart 2009, 595–631.

Sterrett 1888

J. R. S. Sterrett, The Wolfe Expedition to Asia Minor, Boston 1888.

Talbert 2000

R. Talbert, The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton 2000.


P. Herrmann (ed.), Tituli Asiae Minoris, Tituli Lydiae linguis Graeca et Latina conscripti, vol. 1–2, Vienna 1981 and 1989.

Vita Theodore of Sykeon

Vie de Théodore de Sykéôn, I. Texte grec II. Traduction, commentaire et appendice par A.-J. Festugière, Brussels 1970.

Waelkens 1986

M. Waelkens, Die kleinasiatischen Türsteine. Typologische und epi­gra­phische Untersuchungen der kleinasiatischen Grabreliefs mit Scheintür, Mainz am Rhein 1986.

Zgusta 1964

L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen, Prague 1964.